The Środa County covers a territory where the Polish country was formed and its inhabitants participated in the process of country organisation. The settlement in Giecz (nowadays in the Dominowo Commune) was an important part of the defense system in the country of Piast (medieval royal dynasty). One of the most important moments in the county's history was the invasion of the Teutonic Knights repelled nearby Zaniemyśl in 1331.
Since 1496 Środa had been a political capital of Poznań and Kalisz regions, after being appointed, by the General Government in Piotrków, to be a meeting center of aristocracy of these regions. The Swedish Deluge and the Great Northern War brought major destruction to this region.
In 1848, during the Springtide of Nations, the local Uprising Organization Committees were formed in the Środa County (in Środa Wielkopolska, Kostrzyn, Pobiedziska and Zaniemyśl). In those days, the activity of the nation in forming the uprising units was particularly intensive. In Jarosławiec, situated about 3 km from Środa Wielkopolska, the Jarosławiecka Convention was signed by Ludwik Mierosławski. This practically ended the Springtide of Nations.
In 1918 the residents of the county organised and participated in the Wielkopolskie Uprising. The development of the Środa County finished with the beginning of the Second World War. On 1st September 1939, Środa Wielkopolska was bombarded. Despite the Hitler's authorities' destructive politics, the Resistance and guerrilla units formed and developed in the Środa County.
In the past, the Środa County was much bigger and divided into 9 communes (including Kleszczewo, Kostrzyn Wielkopolski, Nekla and Pobiedziska) and nowadays there are 5 communes (Dominowo, Krzykosy, Nowe Miasto nad Wartą, Zaniemyśl and Środa Wielkopolska).